Longtime rival of edgier, more exotic Marseille, the lovely town of Aix-en-Provence (pronounced ex) is gracious, cultivated, and made all the more cosmopolitan by the presence of some 40,000 university students. In keeping with its aristocratic heritage, Aix quietly exudes well-bred suavity and elegance—indeed, it is now one of the 10 richest townships in France. The influence and power it once had as the old capital of Provence—fine art, noble architecture, and graceful urban design—remain equally important to the city today. And, although it is true that Aix owns up to a few modern-day eyesores, the overall impression is one of beautifully preserved stone monuments, quietly sophisticated nightlife, leafy plane trees, and gently splashing fountains. With its thriving market, vibrant café life, spectacularly chic shops, and superlative music festival, it's one Provence town that really should not be missed.
The museums and churches in Aix are overshadowed by the city itself, a gorgeously picturesque place thanks to its elegant 18th-century hôtel particuliers (mansions), enchanting marketplace squares, and beautiful fountains. The last bear striking testimony to Aix's ancient past, as the Romans were first drawn here by the area's mild thermal baths.
Under the wise and generous guidance of Good King René in the 15th century, Aix became a center of Renaissance arts and letters. A poet himself and patron of the arts, the king encouraged a veritable army of artists to flourish here. The artists in turn gratefully left a handful of masterpieces, including Nicolas Froment's Triptyque du Buisson Ardent (Burning Bush Triptych) in the Cathédrale St-Sauveur. At the height of its political, judicial, and ecclesiastical power in the 17th and 18th centuries, Aix profited from a surge of private building, each grand hôtel particulier meant to outdo its neighbor. It was into this exalted elegance that artist Paul Cézanne (1839–1906) was born, though he drew much of his inspiration not from the city itself but from the raw countryside around it, often painting scenes of Montagne Ste-Victoire. A schoolmate of Cézanne's made equal inroads on modern society: the journalist and novelist Émile Zola (1840–1902) attended the Collège Bourbon with Cézanne and described their friendship as well as Aix itself in several of his works. You can sense something of the vibrancy that nurtured these two geniuses in the streets of modern Aix. The city's famous Festival d'Aix (International Opera Festival) has imported and created world-class opera productions as well as related concerts and recitals since 1948. Most of the performances take place in elegant, old Aix settings, and during this time the cafés, restaurants, and hotels spill over with the beau monde who've come to Aix especially for the July event.