As you start to plan your trip, take some time to sort out your challenges and needs. Do you use a wheelchair, walker or cane? Are you hard of hearing or visually impaired? Do you need oxygen? How far can you get on your own? Will you be flying, or taking a train or bus? Renting a car? Where will you be staying?

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Special Equipment

What steps on your trip will involve special equipment? Call bus, train and airline companies ahead of time to discuss special accommodations. And if you're bringing a wheelchair or other wheeled device, find out whether it can be stowed onboard. If you're flying without a wheelchair but need one to get around in the airport, you can ask for an airport wheelchair and an attendant to navigate you easily from place to place. The best time to discuss your needs is when you make your reservation. In many airports, however, you can simply ask for a wheelchair when you arrive for departure. Just leave a little extra time; you may have to wait a few minutes. At the end of your trip, an attendant will meet you with another wheelchair.

Traveling with oxygen requires additional logistics — but again, planning ahead can make all the difference. If you're flying, check with the individual airlines because all have different policies that can change without notice. Also check with train companies and cruise lines. Inquire when you make your reservation and again 48 hours before your departure. You cannot bring a filled home-oxygen concentrator with you on a plane — or check one with your luggage. Some airlines will allow an empty container onboard. You will, however, be able to obtain a portable concentrator that meets with the airline's requirements, both for the flight and for your wait time in airports. In all cases, you'll need your prescription for oxygen and your doctor's letter of approval for air travel. Airlines may add fees of $50 to $150 for each leg of a trip, so book a direct flight if possible to avoid multiple charges. For more helpful advice, check with the National Home Oxygen Patients Association.

Finally, consider an upgrade. Access to the lounge can make your wait at the airport more relaxing, and so can the extra space afforded by a first-class seat. In any case, choosing an aisle seat may make it easier to get to the restroom or receive extra assistance. Also remember that you can board either first or last — whichever is easiest for you — no matter where your seat is.

Person in a wheelchair.
Planning ahead is key for the physically challenged traveler. Catherine Lane

Security Checks

Many kinds of travel — but most certainly air travel — involve security checks. Be aware that even if you are in a wheelchair, you may need to remove your shoes or go through a pat-down search. It's a good idea to check with the Transportation Security Administration, or call TSA Cares at 855-787-2227, to get as much advance information as you can about what to expect.

Hotels

First and foremost, be sure to speak directly with someone at your hotel to discuss your needs. And be aware that you may confront extra challenges in hotels outside the U.S. Some that advertise themselves as "wheelchair friendly" or that pitch services for visitors with disabilities can still present serious obstacles. Elevators may not reach all floors, and stairs may sometimes be the only option. Also lost in translation: Bathrooms in Europe and elsewhere, even those designed to be accessible, may not be what you're used to in the U.S. If you're bringing medication that needs to be refrigerated, ask whether your room will have a fridge or if you can get access to one on the premises.

Hotels in the United States are required to have visual-alert systems so that deaf guests know when the phone rings, someone knocks at the door or a fire alarm goes off. But European hotels may not have these systems. If yours doesn't, you can rent or buy visual alerts online or at a medical supply store.